\r\nBiosphere 3 Manual\r\nI took about 35% of the photos you see here, the rest I got online. My writing is mixed in with unattributed quotes from books about Biosphere 2. It's been put together very slap dash, but it's loaded with botanical engineering detail, much of it more technical than I can follow. I did catch a couple of errors I've made in the text---the facility is just over three acres, not under and I might have described the desert biome incorrectly.\r\n\r\nYet in the end, their miniature world became more of an unintended experiment in the behaviors of one particular species: Homo sapiens.\r\n\r\n"When you create a new world, you end up with all the problems in the world,"\r\n\r\nBy 1989, the growing complexity and momentum of the Biosphere 2 project thrust me into situations that forced me to drastically upgrade myself or get out of the kitchen. A strange sentence that I don\u2019t pretend to understand fully came to me at this time:\r\n\r\n\u201cThe evolutionary secret protects itself and chooses agents by multi-level jumps to strange transfers of consciousness, agents who may be aware or unaware of what ends they serve and what battles they will find themselves engaged in.\u201d ---John Allen\r\n\r\n\r\nStats and Overview\r\n\r\n\r\nBiosphere 2 experiment: 4 men 4 women 1991 2 years\r\n\r\n3.15 acres\r\n\r\n3800 species\r\n\r\n23 soil types\r\n\r\n\r\nThe physical boundaries were marked by the glass and steel spaceframes above and the stainless steel liner above.\r\n\r\nA bottom layer of stainless steel like a ship's hull sealing it off from the soil of Arizona with cement on top of the metals\r\n\r\nOver the garden were 77,000 spaceframe struts with 6,600 panes of glass. Below, there were 640 tons of stainless-steel liner and 6,000 cubic yards of concrete structure, and almost 2,000 sensors, and all were meticulously drafted on construction drawings.\r\n\r\nThe oldest closed ecological system assembled by Clair Folsome in 1968\r\n\r\n1983 the group that decides to build Biosphere 2--the "Decisions Team"\r\n\r\nBiosphere 2 is 4000 feet above sea level---this promised to take the edge off of burning summer temps, and to be above some of the lower lying air pollution. JA 19\r\n\r\nbs2 is ten billion times smaller than bs1\r\n\r\npower generators had a capacity of 5.5 megawatts but they can live on a third of that\r\n\r\n35 miles north of Tucson\r\n\r\ntheory and principles:\r\nconcept of biosphere about 95 years old goes back to Russian geochemist Vladimir Vernadsky (1863-1945). Some scientists consider that Vernadsky did for biological space what Darwin did for biological time. He observed that as life evolves, it actually changes the envriornment in which it evolves. Increasingly complex forms of life appear, using larger amounts of matter and energy and converting them into new patterns of life. The ancient Greek philosopher Heraclitus noted that "being is ever becoming." JA 5\r\n\r\nAccording to Vernadsky, the evolution of human beings gave rise to two new dimensions in the biosphere: the technosphere and the noosphere. The technosphere was created with the evolution of technologies in agriculture, transportation, industry, genetics and all other areas of human activity. Vernadsky defined the noosphere as the region of thought and creativity where reasoning, remembering and decision making take place. The evolving noosphere of the human mind, he believed, would mediate and reconcile conflicts between the technosphere and biosphere and help to direct further evolution, placing humans in the role of stewards of the the Earth. JA6\r\n\r\nIn PJ, the noosphere, and the functioning parts of the technosphere (to a lesser extent) contract into biosphere 2. Without human interaction with a poisoned biosphere 1 that may have been sterilized of all humanity, it generates its own species timeline.\r\n\r\nTheories of the evolution of life on Earth had previously cast life as the opportunistic but fragile passenger and chance beneficiary of benevolent circumstances on the planet. Vernadsky and his school offered a revolutionary theory---that it was life itself that made nearly all conditions necessary for its own evolution. Vernadsky hypothesized that all life on Earth is a single entity and that life manipulates the planetary environment by the transfer of matter on an awesome scale. JA6\r\n\r\nAccording to biospheric theory, the switch from a predominantly carbon dioxide atmosphere to an oxygen atmosphere is a dramatic example of how life on Earth has changed the environment. JA7\r\n\r\nInteresting that we are now moving the ratio to favor C02 which suggests a death drive at work in the collective. Freud defined Thanatos as the animate seeking to become inanimate.\r\n\r\nShuttle type space craft are antiquated see Galactica JA16 A spherical craft with gardens, housing units, running track, labs, a pool beneath a waterfall, miniature farms, Japanese tea gardens and wilderness areas. Spacing faring biospheres.\r\n\r\nBiomes function as the main building blocks of the biosphere, and the driving and adjusting forces are microbes working with the gases in the atmosphere.\r\n\r\nTechnosphere---stats and description\r\n\r\nBS2 described as like the Garden of Eden on top of an aircraft carrier, this is the aircraft carrier part\r\n\r\n120 pumps, 45 air handlers, several miles of electrical wire, pipes, storage tanks, computer controllers, filters, an algae-based nutrient removal system for the ocean and marsh, systems for rainfall irrigation, heating and cooling exchangers, desalination systems, a chemical recycler for atmospheric CO2, diving equipment, composting equipment and other assorted machines.\r\n\r\nA Workshop divided into six areas: mechanical, plumbing, electrical\/electronics, woodwork, rigging and spare parts\/storage\r\n\r\nVibrational sensors feeding into mainframe can give advance warning of mechanical breakdowns.\r\n\r\nTechnical maintenance BS2 was only 30 man-hours per week only 8% of crew time.\r\n\r\nLUG (Life Under Glass) 139, 140\r\n\r\nTommy and Kyle always in communication contact with each other and the mainframe and any alerts from same. They can just speak aloud to hail each other and through their data glasses can see what the other is seeing, etc.\r\n\r\nThe human animals in Biosphere 2 function as the Keystone Predators---meaning that predator without whose efforts a given trophic chain in a given ecosystem would suffer from one or more devastating population explosions.\r\n\r\nOlfactory\r\n\r\nAir in general inside BS2 has a thick heavy, humid greenness---a contrast to the desert outside. Smells are concentrated in the biosphere and this helps Tommy with his heightened senses ---best description of olfactory aspect p. 44 LUG\r\n\r\nBiomes\r\n\r\nBiomes: a human habitat, an agricultural area, a rainforest, a savannah, a desert, a freshwater and a saltwater marsh and an ocean JA 33P The designers consistently referred to their rainforest, desert, savanna, marsh and ocean as the "wilderness" areas.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nRainforest\r\n\r\n \r\n\r\nHalf an acre, key features of the "lost worlds" of the cloud forests. Machines generate clouds of fog and a pool at the top of the stone cliff collects a lot of that moisture. JA 40\r\n\r\nHighest point of BS2 space frame is 90 feet, 40 feet above the cloud forest mountaintop. A path of wooden planks leads over ferns and mud puddles into the rain forest, where shocks of bright green banana leaves press against the glass wall, columns of ants scurrying over branches and vines. Atmosphere hot and moist, clothing dampens, hair wilts.\r\n\r\n. . . .to the Rainforest, to the seclusion of its narrow path in the shade of the tall upper-story trees, to the foot of the thirty-foot-tall mountain in the center of the forest. The glass-and-steel roof amplified the sound of the water thundering down from the mountaintop into Tiger Pond. I charged easily along the path and through the entrance into the hollow mountain, down the spiral stairs to the basement, past more air handlers, through more doors, and down more steps, finally turning right at the Savannah airlock into the Agriculture basement. I could not help thinking what a maze this place was. Large fiberglass tanks lined the walls of the basement next to the windows on the south end, taking advantage of the light to grow rice. It was almost ready to harvest. we heard the first galago calls in the Rainforest. Beautiful black and yellow Heliconius butterflies flitted through the trees, and a cascading waterfall that thundered into Tiger Pond would mimic the steep volcanic rock outcroppings that typify the Venezuelan tepuis region\r\n\r\nThe rainforest mesocosm, at the north end of Biosphere 2, was created to simulate several tropical rainforest habitats (figure 8). The biome can be divided into the following habitats:\r\n\r\n \t\r\nLowland Rainforest includes most of the eastern part of the biome. It is dominated by large trees with a ground layer of aroids.\r\n\r\n\r\n \t\r\nTerraces surround the east, west and north sides of the central \u201cmountain.\u201d Small trees, including papaya, coffee, and palms are in these areas.\r\n\r\n\r\n \t\r\nGinger belts contain fast-growing large monocots such as banana, gingers, and bird-of-paradise to reduce lateral radiation from outside.\r\n\r\n\r\n \t\r\nBamboo belt of dense bamboo species was intended to screen the biome from airborne salt that might be entrained from the ocean biome.\r\n\r\n\r\n \t\r\nVarzea, intended to simulate an Amazonian seasonal floodplain, is located in the southwest corner of the biome.\r\n\r\n\r\n \t\r\nTepui (Cloud forest) was designed to simulate a highland cloud forest. Due to high temperatures, vegetation evolved into a marsh dominated by umbrella sedge.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nInitially, about 300 kinds of plants were introduced with an emphasis on neotropical species and plants used by indigenous people. Dominants among the surviving plant species (less than 100), include Clitoria racemosa, Ceiba pentandra, Musa spp., Arenga pinnata, Epipremnum pinnatum, Syngonium podophyllum, and Cissus sicyoides. The dominant species have changed since initial assembly due to both managerial and ecological factors. One managerial influence occurred in the early 1994. Leucaena leucocephala, a fast growing legume tree species, was planted throughout the biome to shade the newly planted seedlings. This species was removed in early 1994 to provide space for other tree species.\r\nThe soils in the biome are synthesized from local material with textures ranging from sandy loam to clayey loam. In profile, the soils contain a top soil layer which is usually less than one meter thick and subsoil which consists of gravelly granite material.\r\nJane Poynter. The Human Experiment: Two Years and Twenty Minutes Inside Biosphere 2 (Kindle Locations 1497-1499). Kindle Edition.\r\nThe rain forest has rain devices giving it 60" rain a year.\r\nOcean Biome\r\n \r\n\r\nA wave machine creates perfectly formed ripples\r\n\r\nGravelly beach\r\n \r\n\r\n\u2022The Ocean biome would have a coconut palm beach with white coral sand Caribbean style, and a tropical coral reef.\r\nThe water is a comfortable 77-80, great for swimming. They can also jump off the cliffs into the deep part of the ocean (25 foot deep). The first 100,000 gallons of the million gallon ocean was actual ocean water brought in by 23 tractor trailers.\r\n\r\nLooking down the three-stories-high cliff face into the mini-ocean, one foot resting on the concrete rock ledge next to a frankincense plant given to us by the Sultan of Oman. In its natural habitat, frankincense flourishes in limestone cliffs in deserts with summer monsoons like our miniature Savannah, so the plants flourished in the cement pockets of the cliff. I jogged over to narrow steps that wound down the cliff face, reaching the beach, where I sat under the coconut palms. They would not bear fruit for another ten years, too long to do us any good, but they would provide delicacies for crews to come. This was my favorite spot in the Biosphere. It felt almost normal to sit on our beach. I could see fish swimming in the gentle waves lapping up onto the shore. I wondered if those were ones I had caught. Overhead arched the geometric patterns of the white spaceframe, through which I could see the red-splashed clouds and the crimson mountains of the Catalinas in under the coconut palms. This was my favorite spot in the Biosphere. It felt almost normal to sit on our beach. I could see fish swimming in the gentle waves lapping up onto the shore. I wondered if those were ones I had caught. Overhead arched the geometric patterns of the white spaceframe, through which I could see the red-splashed clouds and the crimson mountains of the Catalinas\r\n\r\nSometimes, after dinner, Taber and I would sit on the beach and listen to the "co-kee, co-kee" of the tiny green tree frogs echoing across the Wilderness. This sound gave them their name, coquis. The ever-present chorus of crickets accompanied them, with occasional solos by our four galagos. Those monkeys vocalized in defense of their territory, which apparently did not end at the glass skin of the Biosphere. Linda reported that they were barking angrily at people outside the Biosphere, as if visitors were trespassing.\r\n\r\nLUG 129 The salt bush family atriplex, formed a bonsai forest on the slope down to the salt playa.\r\n\r\nscuba cleaning of ocean p. 25 LUG\r\n\r\nPJ modification: the original windows blocked UV, above the ocean biome these will be replaced by windows that allow UV through so they can sunbathe and to keep the algae under control and\u00a0 prevent it from destroying the coral reef.\r\n\r\nJane Poynter. The Human Experiment: Two Years and Twenty Minutes Inside Biosphere 2 (Kindle Locations 824-825). Kindle Edition.\r\n\r\nSavannah Biome\r\n\r\nStream meanders through, 45 species of grasses JA 43 The stream begins with a waterfall in the rainforest and meanders through the savannah before getting recycled.\r\n\r\nThe Savannah has tall grasses that can grow up to six feet tall during the summer. A stream runs through it along which grow cattails. The stream begins as a waterfall in the rainforest and meanders through the Savannah before being recycled.\r\n\r\nBefore heading up the stairs, I popped in on my friends, the mangroves that had caused so much trouble at the Arizona border. It felt just like standing in the Florida Everglades, but without mosquitoes or the threat of an alligator attack. I briefly hunted around for a garter snake, a venomless black snake with fine blue and red stripes running the length of its body. The snakes would feed on the mosquito fish in the freshwater Marsh and the stream that ran the length of the Savannah, keeping their population in check. At the top of the steps I looked out over the Desert twenty feet below, the southernmost point of Biosphere 2 aside from the South Lung. The Desert seemed isolated, a long way from everyone, a good place to get away from it all. I turned and picked my way along the path through the Thorn scrub, careful not to be stabbed by the spiny plants, then strode across the open plain of the Savannah. The grasses lay Savannah problem LUG 126 Savannah p. 132 LUG\r\n\r\nsavannah chore 26 LUG\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nThe savanna was designed to perform several different functions within Biosphere 2. Its primary goal was to provide a hydrological transition zone between the desert and rainforest mesocosms. The objective was to learn how to balance atmospheric chemistry by varying hydrological regimes within the tropical mesocosms. The savanna was to be a scaled-down model of tropical savannas, both duplicating ecosystem processes in savannas and capturing essential features of biodiversity and aesthetics. Vegetation zones within the savanna mesocosm were created primarily from edible species, including acacias for galagos, large-seeded grasses for finches, and fruit-bearing trees for galagos and birds.\r\nThe savanna is divided into four major regions: Quartzite Slope, Upper Savanna, Granite Slope, and Lower Savanna. The northernmost section of the savanna consists of a quartzite slope made from quartzite boulders. The savanna stream waterfall is located in this area. The Upper Savanna has three sections of vegetation. The section adjacent to the stream is composed of fresh-water wetland species from the Florida Everglades including Cornus foemina, Typha domingensis, Salix caroliniana, Crinum americanum, Ludwigia octovalvis, and Cladium jamaicense. The Gallery Forest section is dominated by Acacia species with a rather sparse grass understory. Typical grass species in the gallery forest include Andropogon gayanus, Panicum maximum, Paspalum guenoarum, Setaria poiretiana, and the invasive Brachiaria mutica. Billabongs are depressions in the Upper Savanna. They were designed to be periodically flooded to produce a hyperseasonal habitat. Hyperseasonal environments alternate between waterlogged and desiccated conditions, which kill most trees and thereby favor grasses. The billabongs are dominated by a grass canopy of Brachiaria mutica and Chloris gayana, with patches of twiningVigna luteola and Macroptilium lathyroides vines.\r\nThe Lower Savannais southernmost, next to the Upper thornscrub. It is dominated by Brachiaria mutica. Other grasses in this area areDichanthium annulatum, Cenchrus setigerus, Panicum maximum, Sorghum halepense, and Brachiaria decumbens.\r\n \r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nMarsh Biome\r\n\r\nThe marsh mesocosm is comprised of two major wetland types: 1) a small area of marshes dominated by grass species and 2) forested swamps dominated by mangrove trees, covering 80% of the mesocosm. 542 mangroves and 15 freshwater trees were originally present in the mesocosm\u2019s 441 m2area. This estuarine model is composed of six adjacent sections. Walls between each section are reinforced with steel rebar and have 0.6 m-wide notches, which permit movement of animals and water between sections. To maximize species diversity, different community types were constructed in each of the six sections.\r\nThe upland end of the model is a wetland-ringed freshwater pond (59 m2). Taxodium distichum, Annona glabra, Salix caroliniana, and Myrica cerifera are the dominant trees. The Oligohaline marsh (32 m2) is the transitional zone between the freshwater and mangrove sections.Acrostichum danaeifolium, Spartina spartinae, Myrica cerifera, and Laguncularia racemosa are the dominant plants. The salt marsh\/white mangrove section (52 m2) signifies the start of the truly marine area. This section is dominated by Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa. The Black Mangrove section (72m2) is dominated by Avicennia germinans. The northern two sections, Oyster Bay (91m2) and Fringing Red Mangrove (129m2), are dominated by Rhizophora mangle trees (Finn, 1996).\r\nThe marsh system was colonized crawfish, snails, mosquito fish, sailfin mollies, mudcrabs, fairy shrimp, mangrove crabs, killifish, amphipods, sponges, anemones, and snapping shrimps. There has been a decline in faunal diversity, perhaps caused by biotic closure effects and the absence of tides.\r\n \r\nThorn Scrub Desert Biome\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nThe wilderness area of Biosphere 2 was designed to represent a gradient from a humid equatorial to arid subtropical climates and vegetation, and to maintain the maximum possible biodiversity. Consistent with these goals, the thornscrub area was designed to simulate the arid limit of the winter-dry, summer-rainy savanna biome, and to contrast with the desert biome, which was designed to have cool-season rainfall and intense summer droughts.\r\nThe thornscrub was intended originally to be part of the savanna biome, but its design goals and history have progressively distanced it from the rest of the savanna. The position of the thornscrub next to the desert biome required that it be divided into two parts: the Upper Thornscrub above the scrubber room and the Lower Thornscrub between the scrubber room and the freshwater marsh. Upper Thornscrub soil simulates a relatively mature deposit derived from volcanic parent material which might be found in Sonora, Mexico. Most of the Lower Thornscrub soil simulates a stabilized coastal dune deposit typical of southern Sonora and Baja California, Mexico, or southwestern Malagasy (Madagascar). Simulated volcanic talus cones were built along the west side of the Lower Thornscrub to create extra habitat for animals and a logical transition to the artificial rock cliffs below the Upper Thornscrub.\r\nPlants were collected from the vicinity of Alamos, Sonora, near the boundary between Sinaloan Thornscrub and Sinaloan tropical deciduous forest. Because of their availability, most Biosphere 2 thornscrub plants are Sonoran species. Bursera grandifolia (torote mulato), Jatropha cordata (torote de vaca), Fouquieria macdougalii (palo adan), and some Erythrina flabelliformis (coral bean) trees up to 6 m tall were dug from wild stands, transported with bare roots, and planted into the Biosphere 2 thornscrub. Other species were brought in as nursery-grown seedlings or smaller transplants from Sonora. Several thornscrub plants from Malagasy and other areas were available in the succulent plant trade, and these were added to increase biodiversity. Examples are Alluaudia ascendens, Uncarina sp.,Xerisicyos danguyi, and Aloe vaombe.\r\nCurrently the vegetation canopy structure has developed to resemble prototype sites, and the woody plant community seems able to resist potential invasions of savanna grasses. Biodiversity appears to be high; although there have been no formal comparisons with other thornscrub sites.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nDesert Biome\r\n\r\nThe cave like vent you see above is part of the cooling system. Otherwise it could be 100+ degrees in summer. It is also keeping down the humidity to 40% while the Sonoran desert is 10% or less. Tommy and Kyle might come here to get away from the humidity.\r\nDeserts are one of the most recently evolved biomes on the planet. Small areas of aridity and life forms adapted to them may be as ancient as any of the land species of the planet. But the spread of extensive desert conditions, however, is a geologically modern development of perhaps the past five million years.\r\n\r\nDesert twenty feet below, the southernmost point of Biosphere 2 aside from the South Lung. The Desert seemed isolated, a long way from everyone, a good place to get away from it all. The desert would have to be a coastal fog desert where the ground is parched much of the year, but the cacti and succulents are acclimatized to an atmosphere thick with moisture like the air in bs2.\r\n\r\nThe desert biome has a number of large boulders that would be good to sit on. There are some clear ground areas. It's large and open with good views of the Catalina mountains.\r\nin limited areas of the desert the boojums, yuccas, and columnar cardon cactus (a fog desert relative of the Sahurao cactus which grows on the mountain slopes outside of Biosphere 2) dominated The bulk of the desert developed into a coastal sage scrub brush desert LUG 129\r\nThe desert was designed to simulate an arid desert scrub ecosystem in a coastal climate with erratic winter rainfall and summer drought. Excessive rain and relatively low evapotranspiration during the initial two-year closure resulted in a dense scrub invaded by grasses. Conversion to a Mediterranean scrub woodland was initiated in 1994, but subsequently climate parameters were changed to simulate more arid conditions. Current management practices are intended to favor arid-adapted species and discourage grasses with C4 photosynthetic pathways.\r\nSoils were constructed to simulate those found in arid places ranging from immature dune sand to profiles with clay, carbonate, and salt accumulations. Mini-rhizotron viewing tubes were installed in the dune, to allow periodic observation of root growth and mesofauna. A playa was designed to simulate seasonally flooded areas where salt accumulates. This area has been almost completely overgrown by saltbushes (Atriplex cinerea). A simulated tinaja of artificial rock supports freshwater organisms that can withstand periodic desiccation.\r\nPlant species diversity has declined since assembly, as might be expected. The substantial changes in management goals and climate, together with the loss of pollinating insects, have undoubtedly influenced extinction rates.\r\n\r\nPJ modification---desert biome, Tommy discovers, is growing psychoactive cacti species San Pedro, branching patterns are a living model for timeline solutions\r\n\r\nAgricultural Area IAB (Intensive Agricultural Biome)\r\n \r\n\r\n \r\n\r\n---slightly more than half an acre 18 small fields rotated---(but they only need to feed two instead of 8) Eventually two thirds were the most successful crops---sweet potatoes beets and lab-lab beans bananas grew in great abundance\r\n\r\np.61 LUG on IAB\r\n\r\nsample agricultural tasks p. 23\r\n\r\nanimal husbandry work 33\r\n\r\nHuman Habitat Biome\r\n\r\n\r\nThe human habitat contained the biospherian apartments, offices, kitchen, dining room, library, exercise room, medical lab, analytical lab and domestic animal bay.\r\n\r\n \r\nCommand center on northern side of habitat has equipment to communicate with the outside world.\r\n\r\nAllen, John (2014-02-05). Me and the Biospheres: A Memoir by the Inventor of Biosphere 2 (p. 158). Synergetic Press. Kindle Edition.\r\n\r\nLiving Quarters----Apartments\r\n\r\n\r\nApartments are 12x16' with a mezzanine area bedroom overlooking a sitting room below. They were connected by a spiral staircase. Views are either of the farm or the desert. The mezzanine aspect makes it easy for Tommy to imagine it as a tree house. They either have a view of the desert or the farm. It might be appropriate if Kyle's looked toward the desert and Tommy's looked toward the farm as Kyle is always looking to expand while Tommy cares for the life within. From Tommy's window, he could see lablab beans in bloom, gorgeous purple blossoms covering the vines\r\nI sat at the small oak desk in my bright, comfortable living quarters in Biosphere 2. Mine was like the other seven biospherians'-split-level with a small mezzanine where my queen-size bed stood. Down a spiral staircase lay my roughly fifteen-by-fifteen-foot living room where I sat writing in my journal, as I did every evening I could summon enough energy. The room was my refuge.\r\nTo my right, a window-several panes of heavy glass held in place by white steel struts-filled almost the entire wall from the floor to the ceiling. My view outside our Biosphere was always crisscrossed with white steel struts, the bones that supported the glass skin covering most of our world. From my desk or bed, I could look out the huge window over our half-acre farm below. But it was outdoors with a twist. Beyond lay outside outside. The Arizona desert. The rest of the world. On this evening, a few miles outside my hermetically sealed home, the Catalina Mountains turned a glorious orange under the setting sun. I heard a soft knock on my door.\r\n\r\nJane Poynter. The Human Experiment: Two Years and Twenty Minutes Inside Biosphere 2 (Kindle Locations 43-44). Kindle Edition.\r\n\r\nsee also p 35 of life under glass for another apartment description\r\n\r\nKitchen\r\n\r\nGranite-slab dining table\r\n\r\nOur dramatic black-and-white kitchen was equipped with most modern appliances: oven, blender, microwave, refrigerator, freezer, grinder, juicer, and electric stove. The kitchen and dining room overlooks the agricultural area. Beautiful purple flowers from lab-lab beans can be seen a lemon tree transforms the balcony overlooking the IAB\r\n\r\nJane Poynter. The Human Experiment: Two Years and Twenty Minutes Inside Biosphere 2 (Kindle Locations 1633-1634). Kindle Edition.\r\n\r\nMushroom Tower\r\n\r\nThrough the glass floor of the library, one could gaze straight down sixty feet to where biospherians brought crops in from the fields and whose loving transformation into cuisine linked contemplation and sweat. In that book-lined dome I gazed out through the Platonic-Fullerian-Augustinian geometry of glass walls and ceilings to rugged mountains and deserts and up into blue light-laden sky. Rolling my eyes to the left, I caught glimpses of the great continental biomes: tropical desert, savannah, and rainforest. The graceful double-inflected domes of the lungs flanked the biosphere, protecting its atmospheric pressure while automatically maintaining equilibrium with local weather vagaries. Refreshing waves lapped over the coral reef on the other side of the savannah, below the plunging cliff; the dark, life-filled mangrove marsh lay beyond the coral reef.\r\n\r\nAllen, John (2014-02-05). Me and the Biospheres: A Memoir by the Inventor of Biosphere 2 (p. 265). Synergetic Press. Kindle Edition.\r\n\r\nJane Poynter. The Human Experiment: Two Years and Twenty Minutes Inside Biosphere 2 (Kindle Locations 2342-2343). Kindle Edition.\r\n\r\nPJ Modifications The mushroom-shaped tower---the head of the mushroom no longer a library, but a high optical "entertainment and living" virtual reality zone for Kyle and Tommy. It still has windows proving a 360 degree view, but every surface of the dome (as well as the glass floor) is optical so that windows can be dimmed and the entire surface can produce 3d HD images allowing VR, movies, etc. background environments---the winter forest in Promethus scene, etc. This tower is 87 feet high and originally was a library and observatory. Now it is also a digital observatory. It can transmit what is actually around and thereby become invisible or we can zoom in on distances. The stairwell that ascends into the dome has 12' diamond-shaped windows. eight flights of spiral staircase to the circular library, the highest point in the Biosphere,\r\n\r\nThe Lung Domes\r\n\r\n\r\nlungs--- awe-inspiring and spooky to walk into the center of one of the 158-foot-diameter circular structures, and stand under sixteen tons of metal pan hanging ominously overhead, attached to the steel walls by a flimsy synthetic rubber skirt and held up only by the pressure of the air inside the Biosphere. The acoustics in the West Lung were extraordinary, sound bouncing off the metal floor and walls in seemingly ever-cycling echoes. Tibetan lamas had chanted in the lung.\r\n \r\n\r\n\r\nJane Poynter. The Human Experiment: Two Years and Twenty Minutes Inside Biosphere 2 (Kindle Locations 1455-1458). Kindle Edition.\r\n\r\nThe south and west lung hemispheric domes each about a 150' from BS2 JA 65\r\n\r\nKyle and Tommy can access the lung through futuristic white tunnel and can make use of the large lung space as a running track.\r\n\r\nAnimal\r\n\r\nHumming birds, Nigerian pygmy goats, pygmy pigs, chickens bats, top predator pygmy kingfisher bird, tree lizards, tortoise, Since there are only 2 humans instead of 8, animals might need to be increased to provide sufficient CO2\r\n\r\n4 goats produced 40 oz milk a day more on goats LUG 158-160\r\n\r\nGalagos\r\n\r\nLUG 164-171\r\n\r\nBushbabies, galagos, are prosimians, monkey-like mammals. Petite cuteness, big eyes, playful ways---omnivores, feeding on fruits, insects and gums from trees. They crave contact with their kind or closest thing to it. They may well adopt the humans for playmates. They learned to climb the space frame structure\r\n\r\n\r\nOne evening Oxide, the alpha male galago, sat in the Savannah watching us all eat dinner. A couple of days later the alpha female, Topaz, attacked Opal, the beta female. They fought until poor Opal was so badly injured that Linda had to hospitalize her in a small cage in the medical facility. Despite their beguiling, cuddly looks, the nocturnal creatures have a vicious bite that can cause a nasty infection. Three times a day for ten days Linda donned heavy leather gloves to avoid being bitten and held the little animal still while I injected her with medication and doctored her wounds. Opal finally recovered and Linda released her back into the Wilderness hoping that the two females would work it out. Instead, Opal exiled herself to the basement, well away from Topaz. Spring was on the way and the galagos produced a baby. It was healthy and the mother was taking good care of it, a triumph since galagos rarely bear offspring in captivity, and the mothers often reject the babies. It was all the more poignant as the adult monkeys had lived in tiny laboratory cages before moving into Biosphere 2, which by comparison was a paradise.\r\n\r\nFood\r\n\r\nGetting enough fat could be an issue. There could be mass stores of coconut oil and now the coconut palms have reached maturity. Pygmy goat milk has highest butter fat content of any goat milk and will be the highest source of fat in their diet.\r\n\r\npigs, chickens and goats, peanuts, rice, wheat, barley, sweet potatoes, pinto beans, papayas, bananas, Swiss chard, squash, tomatoes, strawberries, onions, eggplant, corn, watermelon, carrots, white potatoes, eggs, goat milk, coffee, tea, fish (live in rice paddies)\r\n\r\nsmall topical orchard lime, avocado, guava, fig, tangerine, lemon, papaya, banana, mandarin, kiwi, pineapple, grapes, star fruit, kumquat and tropical apple passion fruit, sugar cane, pineapple, melons, kale and assorted herbs, mung beans, artichokes, chilies, bush beans cacao and tea some of the few harvested crops from the rainforest biome\r\n\r\nSwimming around the plants were tilapia fish, which live largely on small creatures growing in the paddies that would otherwise attack the rice. The fish also grazed azolla, a small fern floating thickly on the water. The tilapia nosed around in the roots for food,\r\n\r\n65 LUG for more on paddies\r\n\r\nBananas turned out to be one of the most important ingredients in our diet. In the first of our two years in Biosphere 2 we ate just over a ton of bananas, only slightly less than the 1.3 tons of sweet potatoes. The 2o8 calories a day we each ate were manna from heaven and I still eat a banana a day. Bananas were the sweeteners in our desserts and ice cream, and they were the thickeners in our pies and puddings (bananas contain a substance that is similar to pectin which thickens upon cooking).\r\npork ribs from the freezer in sweet and sour sauce, rice with peanuts, stir-fry vegetables, potato chips, a garden salad, and chili bread, all followed by crepes stuffed with fruit, cake, sweet-potato pie, cheesecake, banana bread, papaya juice, and home brew.\r\n\r\nJane Poynter. The Human Experiment: Two Years and Twenty Minutes Inside Biosphere 2 (Kindle Locations 2563-2564). Kindle Edition.\r\n\r\nbeets, borscht, papaya see LUG 92-93\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nGeneral\r\n\r\nA biosphereian could easily walk 5 miles a day just going about daily duties.\r\n\r\n\r\nWeather\r\n\r\natmosphere humid tropical, with summer highs around 85 and winter lows of about 65\r\n\r\nThe chilly, cloudy days made the Biosphere dark and dank, even in the Wilderness, which usually felt tropical. It was as if our life systems were crying out for the lost sunny days of summer. Tears dripped from the roof all over the\r\n\r\nJane Poynter. The Human Experiment: Two Years and Twenty Minutes Inside Biosphere 2 (Kindle Locations 1770-1772). Kindle Edition.\r\n\r\n\r\nExcerpts from Pushing Our Limits---Insights from Biosphere 2 by Mark Nelson\r\nOne day there might be Biosphere 3\u2026\r\n\u2026the amount of machinery, piping, and equipment seemed endless; the water system alone had more than thirty different subsystems.\r\n\u2026no one had ever successfully created such a large living coral reef. Now, the coral reef was successfully installed, and waves lapped up on a sandy beach planted with coconut palms\u2014in a glass house at an elevation of 3,900 feet in the Arizona desert!\r\nThe task of our time, Vernadsky prophetically realized, was to integrate what he and his successors call the \u201ctechnosphere\u201d with the \u201cbiosphere.\u201d The technosphere includes all human activities (like technology and industry) and the two human-dominated biomes: agriculture and cities. He thought this integration was possible, foreseeing a \u201cnoosphere\u201d (from the Greek word, noos, meaning mind or intelligence) developing as the next stage of Earth evolution.\r\nDiscontent began when the engineers saw the preliminary architectural drawings by Phil Hawes and Margaret Augustine. What a waste of resources, they said. \u201cWe can save big bucks\u2014and make construction and engineering so much easier\u2014if Biosphere 2\u2019s design was simpler. Think big-box-store simple.\u201d Biosphere 2\u2019s directors answered with an unequivocal \u201cNo!\u201d They were going to create the first man-made biosphere, and couldn\u2019t believe the engineers wanted it to be ugly and unimaginative. Instead the architects created a stunning design that paid homage to world architecture: Barrel-vaulted space frames inspired by Babylonian forms, stepped pyramids like those of the Middle East and the Americas, and geodesic domes as a nod to the modern architectural masterpiece invented by Buckminster Fuller.\r\nThe human habitat tower housed the shared library and hosted parties and celebrations. It also gave the biospherians a place where they could look out at their world and the surrounding beauty of the project\u2019s location. Though the tower was sixty-five feet in height, you still had to look up to see the highest point in Biosphere 2, the rainforest pyramid stretching five feet higher\u2026.\r\nThe marsh modeled on the Everglades would have six zones, ranging from freshwater to salty coastal mangrove, with vegetation adapted to each.\r\nUnderground, Biosphere 2 had walls and floors of welded, high-strength stainless steel. Just concrete would not have made the structure airtight enough.\r\nThe engineers came up with a solution\u2014vacuum pumps. These pumps sucked up ten thousand gallons from the million-gallon ocean and gently let the water fall. The vacuum pumps required a wall between ocean and marsh, with a cavity where this volume of water could be vacuumed up and then gently released. Linda Leigh compared the noise the vacuum pumps made to the sounding of a large gray whale. I heard it as the recurring in-breaths of the \u201cold man of the sea.\u201d It became an integral part of the soundscape we biospherians listened to for two years. Every twenty to thirty seconds, a wave was released. You could hear it throughout Biosphere 2. Not hearing that sound meant there were pump problems\u2014instinctively alarming to all of the crew, like sailors accustomed to the sound of ship engines. When the wave machine stopped, this triggered alarms and emergency response since our ocean\u2019s health depended on it.\r\ntemperature ranges. For example, the rainforest shouldn\u2019t get above 95 degrees Fahrenheit in the summer nor fall below 55 degrees in the winter. In the desert, temperature ranges could be more extreme, with summer heat allowed to reach 110 degrees and dropping into the 30s in the winter. We chose a fog coastal desert adapted to higher humidity because it was too energy-demanding to dehumidify. Biosphere 2\u2019s wilderness wing had high humidity since it included a rainforest and ocean. But in the human habitat and farm, for comfort and to reduce pest infestations, the humidity was kept far lower. The farm also had tighter temperature regimes to maximize the productivity of our mix of tropical and temperate crops.\r\nVISITORS TO BIOSPHERE 2 are impressed by how large a structure it is. We biospherians were acutely aware of how small and finite it was. Yes, space frame ceilings were some seventy-five feet above the ground in the rainforest, mostly forty feet elsewhere. The wilderness wing\u2014rainforest, savanna, thorn scrub, fog desert, mangrove marsh, tropical ocean with coral reef\u2014stretches more than five hundred feet, almost the length of two football fields. That, plus the farm and living areas and two nearby lungs, makes the overall footprint a bit more than three acres. Yet each one of our biomes was scarcely half an acre. You could get across any of them in a few minutes at a slow walk. Compare a seventy-five-foot ceiling with Earth\u2019s atmosphere, extending fifty miles above the planet.\r\nOur rich soils to grow the young trees we started with to full height extend four feet deep in the farm and eight to ten feet deep in the wilderness biomes. Over a couple of acres that adds up to thirty thousand tons of living soil.1 The\r\nIn a year, CO2 completes 90 to 180 cycles, about 250 to 500 times faster than in our relatively spacious global biosphere.2 Water cycles and nutrient cycles accelerated as well. John Allen, inventor of Biosphere 2 and its first director of research and development, called it a \u201ccyclotron of the life sciences.\u201d\r\nA space scientist shocked me with his story of being among the first to greet the returning astronauts when they landed the space shuttle. He took a whiff and promptly threw up. Though the shuttle was only in space for a couple of weeks, the interior air was absolutely disgusting\u2014dank, stale, revolting.\r\nOften people in such closed spaces don\u2019t realize it. A few years later, at a space conference, Yevgeny Shepelev confided to me that after the jubilant cheers of his fellow researchers, he went back to the chamber where he\u2019d spent twenty-four hours with chlorella algae. He said it stank inside, and he was amazed he had endured the experiment.\r\n\u00a0But Biosphere 2 was a giant apparatus, with hundreds of motors and pumps. Other equipment included desalinators and twenty-five air-handling machines that circulated air creating mild breezes. Numerous tanks stored different quality water. Miles of closed-loop pipes brought in heated water\r\nSpace frame roofs in Biosphere 2 were high both for tree growth and to make our atmosphere as large as possible. But despite seven million cubic feet of volume, Biosphere 2 was extremely susceptible to trace gas accumulation.\r\nConsultants advised these gases were from PVC glues and solvents. Eight of us fanned out searching for the culprit. Finally, in a dark corner of the technosphere basement, we found a couple of small, improperly closed cans of glue and solvent. Their caps were cross-threaded. Those tiny air passages allowed trace gases to escape and accumulate in measurable quantities. The cans were properly tightened and, within a week, concentrations of those trace gases declined substantially in our atmosphere.\r\nOne breath, and we sensed the dense air of our life-packed new world\u2014rich with fragrant tropical aromas.\r\nCO2 concentration was 280 ppm (parts per million) in Earth\u2019s atmosphere before the Industrial Revolution began in the 1800s. Ever since, it has continued to rise, recently exceeding 400 ppm. Other greenhouse gases such as methane and sulfur\/nitrogen oxides have also risen, triggering deep concerns about the impacts of global climate change. For human health, this rise in CO2 is not a concern since we can tolerate far higher concentrations. The space shuttle typically fluctuated between 5,000 and 10,000 ppm (which is 1 percent CO2). The International Space Station operates between 2,000 and 7,000 ppm without health concerns,2 and submarines operate at CO2 levels up to 8,000 ppm.3 Although it had been believed that it\u2019s only well above 10,000 ppm that health issues arise for people, recent studies have shown incidents of headaches for astronauts on the International Space Station increase with rising CO2. NASA\u2019s current standard for maximum allowable CO2 in spacecraft is 7,000 ppm.4\r\nA storm front bringing cloudy weather could increase CO2 levels hundreds of ppm per day. It seemed cruel luck our first year in Biosphere 2 was an El Ni\u00f1o one. That weather pattern shifts the jet stream south from the northwest United States. It means higher rain and more cloudy days in the southwest, where we were. These El Ni\u00f1o weather conditions lowered average sunlight by 10 to 20 percent through our fall and winter months.\u00a0 If such a CO2 emergency used in PJ, the following will be relevant\r\nFrequent CO2 \u201cblitzes\u201d included getting plants into bare areas. We planted sugarcane on the cloud forest atop the rainforest mountain; we potted plants in containers along the savanna cliff-face wall; and we set up hundreds of planters in the agriculture basement promenade where they could get sunshine. Spare lights were deployed above a bed of fast-growing algae and vegetables in the farm basement.\r\nDigging into the soil with a hand trowel released a burst of CO2. Soils contain five to ten times more CO2 than the air.\r\nCarbon Storage (Sequestration) Teams pruned plants capable of rapid regrowth. These included the ginger belt perimeter plants, which wrapped around the rainforest, reeds, cattails in our freshwater freshwater marsh and grasses in the lower and upper savanna. The desert, thorn scrub, and savanna were our \u201cbiovalves,\u201d since depending on the season, they were active or dormant. Within the limits of their health, these biomes could be activated a bit early and kept growing a bit longer to help lower CO2. The savanna was particularly important; its grasses grew lushly and were more tolerant of being active longer. So we cut the grasses, some capable of five- to six-foot growth a year, so they\u2019d be ready for major carbon uptake when we turned on the rain. Left in place, these cut-plant materials would decompose rapidly and release the stored carbon as CO2. We bundled and dragged the pruned biomass to drier places, like the basement or lung, to slow decomposition. Normally nature takes control of carbon sequestration or storage. But we biospherians were growth-accelerators and carbon storage helpers. We hauled tons of pruned biomass. Part of the job description: matter-moving machines.\r\nAn additional tool for our CO2 management was our carbon dioxide scrubber. This unique and innovative system imitated how our global biosphere makes limestone, taking carbon out of circulation. Over geologic eras, marine organisms deposited huge quantities of limestone using calcium and CO2 from ocean water. Our chemical precipitator employed a several-step chemical reaction to make powdery limestone. The beauty of this system was that it was reversible. When Biosphere 2 needed more carbon dioxide, the reactions could be reversed. Then by heating the limestone, the liberated CO2 would go back into the atmosphere. We joked it would then be Biosphere 2\u2019s volcano. Volcanoes release vast amounts of CO2 when they explode, putting carbon previously tied up in mineral- and life-deposited forms back into circulation.\r\nHe took a CO2 sensor home to his tightly insulated\u00a0 house. To his astonishment, hosting a dinner party on a cold night caused CO2 levels to exceed 4,000 ppm! He had no idea this would happen. City dwellers likely have no idea either: city traffic doubles or triples CO2 levels, and air inside office buildings can exceed 2,000 ppm.\r\nBiome. The main farm area had sixteen plots where we could rotate crops. The farm also had a line of banana and papaya trees and soil rice paddies. We grew other grains (wheat, oats, sorghum, and millet), starches (sweet and white potato, yam, and taro), beans, peanuts, and a wide variety of vegetable crops. Satellite sections included a small orchard with tropical fruits and a basement area near south-facing windows with rice paddies in fiberglass tanks, additional fruit trees, and our constructed wetland for wastewater treatment and recycling.1\r\nAvoiding monocultures is vital. The impact of one poor harvest or unsuccessful crop is not devastating for overall food production if you\u2019re growing a wide mix of crops. We grew eighty crops, including herbs. There were at least two to three varieties for each crop, since each differed in resistance to disease or insects.4 Broad mites unexpectedly decimated plantings of soybeans, yard beans, and white potatoes. We switched to tropical cowpeas and lablabs for our beans and sweet potatoes (with some taro and yams) for our main carbohydrates.\r\nAnimals were also part of our recycling program to maintain soil fertility. Our animals ate the human-inedible parts of our crops like stems and leaves. The manure of our domestic animals gave us nitrogen to heat up our compost. Though raising animals took time (around a tenth of total biospherian labor), interacting with the animals was also fun. Though we ate a mostly vegetarian diet, the small amounts of eggs, milk, and meat were made into special dishes that greatly enlivened our meals.\r\nan adorable and photogenic goat was the first born inside. But . . . what if they asked about that goat\u2019s future? We could only support four milking goats and a buck for breeding. The question didn\u2019t come up.\r\nEach day we supplied eighty to one hundred pounds of green fodder to our animals.\r\nIt did not help to know that roaches are an unsolved problem in many large botanic gardens . . . Although we kept everything spotlessly clean, once the kitchen was plunged into darkness, hordes of insects turned the white countertops brown . . . So the person on night watch had the chore of creeping into the kitchen to catch them unawares. Armed with a vacuum cleaner, he or she flipped on the light and vacuumed up as many roaches as possible before they all scuttled away. We then carried the roaches down to the animal bay and fed them to the chickens, which although startled awake, leaped into action chasing after the bugs, which were a great source of protein.\r\nAnimal products supplied only a small portion of the Biosphere 2 diet. We got around forty ounces per day of sweet goat\u2019s milk. This made possible cheese, ice cream, fruit smoothies, and special sauces.\r\nI made lousy-tasting yerba mate, a caffeine-rich plant that grew in our rainforest.\r\nRats given the choice of unlimited food would gorge and gorge, achieving short-term satisfaction with greater illness and far shorter lifetimes than the ones fed the high-nutrient, low-calorie diet.\r\nA world population of one billion in 1800 has grown to seven billion, with nine billion projected by the mid-twenty-first century.\r\nAS A MODEL BIOSPHERE, in addition to two anthropogenic (man-made) biomes, agriculture and microcity human habitat, this new world had \u201cwilderness\u201d biomes. They represented a spectrum of land and water biomes. Tropical systems were selected because they\u2019re the most productive, among the most threatened, and easiest to create in a southern Arizona greenhouse.\r\nThe decision to include soil in the agriculture and wilderness biomes was driven by appreciation of their immense life power. Underneath one square foot of fertile soil live about a million roundworms, five thousand earthworms, and five thousand insects and mites. Microbial soil life is even more intense. A thimble of soil contains thirty thousand protozoa, fifty thousand algae, half a million fungi, and billions of bacteria\u2014the vast majority of which have never been seen nor identified.12\r\nGiven space constraints and food chain realities, the largest animal in our wilderness biomes was the galago, or \u201cbush baby,\u201d a small monkey-like, tree-dwelling animal from Africa. Weighing just two and a half pounds at maturity, they could survive on fruit and insects in Biosphere 2. They had done well and multiplied in our research greenhouses before closure. There Since we wouldn\u2019t have pets, these lively prosimians would be our primate cousins, offering entertainment and a kind of companionship. They were known to be friendly toward humans without losing their wildness. Night-active, we expected them to traverse the tree lines from rainforest through savanna to thorn scrub. They had a true monkey-like curiosity and fully explored our little world more widely than expected. They traversed our technosphere basements, and one even reached our orchard, taking advantage of a door left ajar.\r\n\u2026 As expected, the galagos provided lots of entertainment and bonding. We took night watches on a rotation, and galagos were frequently encountered or heard calling during our rounds. The calls of the galagos resounded through the wilderness, cheering up night-watch patrols and biospherians out for an evening in the wilderness biomes. More than a few times, galagos would perch in a savanna tree overlooking us at dinner. They were curious, and so were we\u2026\r\n\u2026 While seated in the rainforest or beach, a galago would silently come up and sit next to them. \r\nPJ----use in book 4\u00a0 when Tommy mediates on Boulder !!!\r\nLinda felt like it was a visit from a \u201clittle sister.\u201d7 They would sit together for a while, and then the galago would go on its way.\r\nThe Biosphere 2 marsh biome had six zones. Farthest from our ocean was the freshwater marsh, with wetland grasses, cattails, and trees such as cypress and willows. Next was the oligohaline (slightly salty area) with giant wetland ferns (one grows eight feet tall) and shrubs. Then came the mangrove and oyster bay zones, dominated by white mangrove trees, black mangroves, and finally red mangroves fringing the ocean\u2026.Some of the taller mangroves were thirteen to eighteen feet tall.\r\nMore than two dozen fish, numerous types of shrimp, frogs, crabs, oysters, mussels, and mangrove insects were found in surveys after the two-year closure.\r\nOur lead desert designer, Dr. Tony Burgess of the Desert Laboratory in Tucson, decided early on to make a \u201cfog desert,\u201d or a coastal desert.1 Situated near rainforest, mangrove swamp, and ocean meant humidity would be high in the Biosphere 2 desert. Fog desert plants get a sizeable portion of their water by milking it from moist air produced by nearby bodies of water. While the Biosphere 2 desert was a mix from other coastal deserts, Baja California, Mexico, supplied most of the plants. There, some of the strangest plants grow in North America\u2019s driest desert, nestled in a narrow peninsula between the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Cortez. Many are endemic, found only there.2 The \u201cBoojum,\u201d named after a word in a Lewis Carroll poem, resembles an upside-down carrot. It forms weird landscapes with its oddly twisting top. The card\u00f3n is a columnar cactus closely related to the Saguaro cacti of the Sonoran desert, which surrounds Biosphere 2.\r\nOur desert zones included sand dune, salty playa, canyon, seasonal pool, and higher ground.\r\nDesert plants often have distinctive aromas\u2014a defense mechanism along with spiky thorns to deter grazing animals. The desert in Biosphere 2, with its striking vistas, was a feast for the nose. Other people knew you\u2019d spent time in the desert by the lingering aromas you carried back.\r\nThorn scrub neighbored the desert on two sides. The thorn scrub between lower savanna and desert\r\n\u2026The thorn scrubs were a scratchy area, and Burgess joked the thorn scrub would teach nimbleness\u2026\r\nMiniature biospheres will eventually be needed to allow open-ended habitation in space. But even that will be a progressive evolution from far simpler space life support systems.\r\nNelson, Mark. Pushing Our Limits . University of Arizona Press. Kindle Edition.\r\nEvolution is a continuing journey. Estimates of the number of species on Earth vary dramatically, from ten million to fifty million or more. We don\u2019t know for sure because the vast majority has not been identified.10 Similarly, estimates are that more than 99 percent of the species that ever lived are now extinct. Some gave rise to successors, while others simply died out.11 The average mammal species lifetime is one million years, though some last ten million years.\r\nHalf the crew started having symptoms associated with lowered availability of oxygen such as sleep apnea, as we fell below 16 percent oxygen. This condition makes people suddenly wake up from sleep because the body senses a lack of vital oxygen. To alleviate these symptoms, we ran lines from the analytic lab oxygen concentrator to four of the crew rooms. They put on oxygen breathing tubes to counteract sleep apnea.\r\nCabin fever leads to the buildup of tensions when people are in close confinement. This happens even among good friends who respect one another, and it can get worse with prolonged isolation. Psychologists call it \u201cirrational antagonism.\u201d1 In expedition circles, it\u2019s called \u201cexplorer\u2019s cholera.\u201d Admiral Byrd, the great polar region explorer, wrote: \u201cI knew of one who could not eat unless he could find a place in the mess hall out of view of a [person] who solemnly chewed twenty-eight times before swallowing. In a polar camp, little things like that have the power to drive even disciplined men to the brink of insanity.\u201d2\r\nThat\u2019s part of the Alpha personality: show no weakness or emotion. I recall reading in a Russian book about its Salyut space station that one cosmonaut wrote that living in such close quarters was a perfect recipe for homicide!\r\nRoy sort of started it by semi-seriously saying that he\u2019d been badly bitten by our local fire-ants near Tiger Pond [under the rainforest mountain waterfall], and if he seemed delirious or spacey, that was the reason.\r\nOleg Gazenko was an SAC member and saw us during our last year and at re-entry. He concluded, \u201cYour difficulties in Biosphere 2 were nothing compared to our cosmonauts.\u201d26\r\nSome studies show the third quarter of an expedition is the toughest.\r\nThe first winter, a fire nearly engulfed our carbon dioxide scrubber when a three-prong electric cord was incorrectly wired and left atop a tank. When Taber happened to pass by, it was just starting to melt through the plastic. Flames were beginning to flare out of the smoke. Had it caught on fire, it would have catastrophically polluted our small atmosphere.\r\nSealed into a\u00a0 small biosphere: The knowledge of my metabolic connection with that world passed from my head to my body and became palpable, sensory. My body got it as I walked around, looking at the plants, breathing in from our shared atmosphere. These plants and I were breathing together. They were collectively my third lung. My breathing and metabolism were helping them, and without them, how would I survive? That cellular awareness persisted through my time inside. Even when I was in the small \u201capartment\u201d of the test module, I could feel the presence of the other life I had joined. It was a wonderful feeling: my body and I were totally connected with them. It was like joining a symphony of life already in progress, and I had my role to play as well. My presence here had changed this world, but I fit in fine\u2014there was room for me.\r\nBiospherian responsibilities encompassed jobs usually done by separate categories of people. We were farmers, laborers, technicians, technicians, researchers, and managers, often all in the course of a single day. We were the farmers of our world. We planted, tended, and harvested our crops. That farming allowed us to eat and was an important part of our world\u2019s metabolism, affecting air and water quality.\r\nThere was this strong psychological sense of being inside when we were in the human habitat, and a sense of being outside when we were in the farm or the biomes. Like any visitor to a national park, being amid that greenery and beauty nourished our spirits.\r\nWe\u2019ll keep other species, I believe, because as Bio2 helps prove, life is a technology.\u00a0 Life is the ultimate technology. . . . because of its autonomy\u2014it goes by itself, and more importantly, it learns by itself.6\r\nThe novelist William Burroughs noted, \u201cthe way to kill a person or a nation is to cut off their dreams, their magic.\u201d12\r\nThe outside air was thinner, less \u201ctasty\u201d than Biosphere 2\u2019s, and filled with different aromas. From a moist pungent tropical air reflecting the intensity of life inside, we now breathed a drier, high-elevation desert air.\r\nThe quality of light as you looked toward the horizon had subtle spectral gradients I hadn\u2019t seen for two years.\r\nIt was also amazing to not have a barrier between us and other people. I could feel the emotions and presence of those thousands of people as powerful pulsating waves, enveloping us. It was a delicious experience\r\nThe Chinese have taken world leadership in the field with two very advanced facilities in Beijing. One is called Lunar Palace (Permanent Astrobase Life-Support Artificial Closed Ecosystem) at Beihang University. They successfully completed a three-and-a-half-month closure with three people, recycling wastes and growing most of the required food.16 The other is at the Chinese Astronaut Center.\r\nNew Stories, New Myths ---It\u2019s important to not heed those ready to give up the fight for a better future, as though we\u2019ve passed some irrevocable tipping point. Artists and writers, poets and dreamers among us have a critical role to play. We are in great need of new scripts, new storylines, new epics, new mythologies, and teaching stories for humanity as we forge a renewed respect and moral compass for our behavior toward the natural world in the Anthropocene. Many of the old myths deeply embedded in our cultural consciousness have sobering tales to tell: expulsion from the Garden of Eden, Gilgamesh cutting down the sacred forest, the ever-receding \u201cgolden age,\u201d paradises gained but lost.\r\nNelson, Mark. Pushing Our Limits . University of Arizona Press. Kindle Edition.